Copper ore is extracted from either open mines or underground mines. For underground mines, a vertical tube is inserted into the ground to extract raw copper.


Large rocks are broken into small ones. This is accomplished by a variety of successive steps until raw copper is turned into powder.

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Increasing Concentration

Raw copper is enriched by separating the materials from each other and removing unwanted materials, so they go down in order to convert the copper into a more useful shape.


Copper ore powder is heated to between 500 ° C and 700 ° C to remove sulfur and to dry the ore, which is still a solid material called “lime”.

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A substance is added to the copper to facilitate its melting process and make it melt faster. Solid lime is melted to a temperature of 1200 ° C. Some impurities are removed to form a mixture of liquid copper and iron sulfide.

Electric Refining

99.99% copper is purified by electrical refining.

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